Posts Tagged ‘postaday2011’

Whys and Wherefores

January 4, 2011

This one’s a bit late–sorry about that! I’ve gone for a longer post to make up for the tardiness.

Antarctica, as you may have noticed, is a long way away from almost everything. And even aside from being distant, it’s logistically tricky to get to. The Southern Ocean is stormy and mercurial at the best of times, every iota of fuel and supplies must be shipped in, and the preponderance of ice and snow presents its own special problems. So why have we made the trek back once again?

You may recall that last year we came down seeking types of ice that can’t be found anywhere else on Earth: sea ice so cold that the salts trapped within it can crystallize, and ice whose surface has sublimated away to leave behind a crust of the salt mirabilite. This year we’re once again seeking ice that exists nowhere else. In this case, we’re looking for ice that has formed from the accumulation of snow and eventually become re-exposed to the sun by sublimation without ever experiencing temperatures above freezing.

There are three main layers to the Antarctic ice sheet. At the surface is snow. Over time, as surface snow is buried by the accumulation of later years, it compacts and grows dense and hard. This deep-down, compacted snow is called firn. In the rest of the world “firn” simply means snow that has survived through the summer melt season, but in Antarctica, where there is no summer melt season except at a few places near the coast, firn is sometimes defined as snow that has reached a certain density (550 kilograms per cubic meter, which is the density at which simple rearrangement of ice particles gives way to more complicated densification processes.) The firn continues to grow denser under the weight of the snow and firn above it until the spaces between snow grains close off to become bubbles, and the firn becomes ice.

Blue ice stratigraphy

The ice flows under its own weight. In some places, the ice surface may flow into an area of the ice sheet where sun and wind vaporize (or sublimate, which means to turn directly from solid to vapor) the snow faster than it can accumulate. In this case, the snow on the surface will sublimate away, exposing the firn below and eventually the ice. And that firn and ice—exposed to the sun, yet never melted—is unique to Antarctica. These “blue ice zones” are of interest to meteorite hunters, because meteorites that may have been buried in the snow become exposed, and are easy to spot on the surface. My colleagues already found and collected some meteorites during their first trip out.

We’re interested for a different reason, though–we want to know how much light reflects off of these blue ice zones, because there would have been a lot of them on Snowball Earth. (Here’s a great article in the Antarctic Sun that talks about our research.) Many areas of Snowball Earth, particularly near the equator, would have been so dry that snow sublimated away faster than it could accumulate.

These areas of exposed blue ice, being much darker than snow, would have absorbed a lot of sunlight and had a significant effect on the planet’s balance of energy. So knowing exactly how much sunlight they absorb is important to people trying to model Snowball Earth.

So that’s why we’re here. Mostly, anyway–some of us, including myself, also have a keen interest in snow and want to do some side projects involving the microstructure of snow and bubbly ice. But more on that later!


Take to the Hills!

January 3, 2011

It occurred to me today that our study site is more remote than any other place I’ve been, by a decent margin. If the zombie apocalypse were to reach Antarctica the day after they dropped us off there, we’d have a lengthy distance to traverse, through harsh conditions, before we got back to the station–which is, itself, quite far away from the nearest truly habitable land. It’s possible to survive for a while in Antarctica by living off of fresh meat and burning blubber for heat (I think this is how Shackleton’s men survived when they were stranded on Elephant Island) but it’s not an especially pleasant experience, nor would it probably be sustainable in the long term.

In any case, being curious about just how far from station we would be, I made a map. Google Maps seems to have added considerably better imagery for this area since I tried it out on my first trip down. (I’m working on adding some of the interesting places around station to the map, as well as the further-out field sites.)

Map of McMurdo and surrounding areas

You can see that the Allan Hills area–up in the top left-hand corner of this map–is only about 140 miles/220 kilometers away from McMurdo “as the skua flies.” It’d be a bit longer if you had to find a route across the ice, supposing the sea ice was even intact enough to allow you to get to Ross Island.

In reality we won’t be too far away, just an hour’s ride in a Twin Otter, but it’ll be quite an experience regardless.

Happy Antarctican 2011!

January 2, 2011

A bit late, since it’s already 8:42 on January 2nd–I took yesterday off. The New Year’s celebration here is quite an experience, a six-hour music festival called Icestock. I’m mainly posting now to announce my intention to try for the Post a Day 2011 Challenge–I’ll post something every day, be it a limerick, an interesting science fact, a photo, or a full-on Science Explanation.

I realized today that I’d already missed the first day of 2011, but I’m weaseling my way in on the theory that it’s still January 1st back in Seattle (for five more minutes!) It may be tricky to post every day when I’m out in the field, but I’ll figure something out with the help of the friendly IT staff and an Iridium satellite phone.

Today I went out to the pressure ridges near Scott Base, formed when winds or currents force the sea ice up against the Ross Ice Shelf.

From Pressure Tour 2011

Goggles: still a bit big. But anything smaller won't fit over my glasses.